Published September 2015  •  Updated February 2024  •  Read Time: 9 minutes
Sapphire is the most famous blue gemstone, but it actually comes in every shade of the rainbow.  The gems range from clearest white to deepest black and from merry yellow to sweet green.  The only color it doesn’t take is red – because when it’s red, the gem is called Ruby.  Scientifically, Sapphire and Ruby are identical, their only difference is color.  Sapphire has a long history as a healing crystal and is often referenced in spiritual texts, including the Bible.  Sapphire has a serene and wise energy that encourages us to cherish truth and live with integrity.  It helps us to work through our thoughts and emotions so that we act for the Highest Good.

Sapphire blue sapphire

Blue Sapphire Meaning

Spiritual Healing Properties

Sapphire inspires within us a deep love of truth and a profound desire to live in our personal integrity. It is a mystical stone that encourages us to explore the full depth and breadth of our spiritual lives and to cultivate our spiritual gifts. Sapphire drives us forward relentlessly in the pursuit of wisdom and understanding. It opens the intuitive and psychic mind, facilitates energy channeling and clarifies communication between this realm and others. Sapphire encourages both practical common sense and far-flung dreaming, helping us find the correct balance between those aspects so we can achieve our goals. Sapphire attracts prosperity, both financial and emotional, and gives us the discipline to maintain this prosperity throughout the course of our lives. Sapphire has a very regal and elegant quality, that increases our appreciation of beauty and the finer things in life.

Metaphysical Properties Blue Sapphire
Chakra Throat and Third Eye
Element Wind and Earth
Numerology 2 and 6
Zodiac Gemini, Virgo, Libra, and Sagittarius

Emotional Healing Properties

Sapphire’s peaceful energy smoothly dispels depression and anxiety, leaving us feeling calm and collected. It brings relationships into greater harmony and encourages clear communication between individuals. Sapphire reminds us that we must be true to ourselves, and that we need no one’s permission or approval to live our own lives. While the opinions of others can be taken into account, ultimately Sapphire teaches us to trust ourselves and our decisions. Blue Sapphire helps us to express ourselves clearly and to speak our truth without fear.

Mental Healing Properties

Sapphire increases our discernment and powers of critical thinking. It celebrates a thirst for knowledge and wisdom in all forms. Sapphire’s calm energy that helps us to look at situations logically and to clearly understand causal affect. Sapphire helps us to work through our own thoughts and emotions, and to make decisions that serve our Highest Good. Once decisions have been made, then Sapphire can help guide our actions so that we can realize our intentions as quickly and efficiently as possible. Sapphire helps us to look at ourselves and our own life very closely and to keep whatever is good and to discard whatever is no longer needed or desirable.

Physical Healing Properties

Sapphire is recommended when we need to think clearly but are struggling to do so because of issues with our physical body. It is particularly useful when the discomfort is literally in our head, whether it’s a headache, ear infection, eye infection, or sinus problem. Sapphire helps us to stay calm and act sensibly. When possible, it encourages us to take it easy and give our body time to heal. When the situation is serious, it encourages us to take medicine or see a doctor so that the problem can be cleared up as quickly as possible. When we simply have to endure it because of our responsibilities, Sapphire helps us to tolerate the pain for a little while, but not so long that we make the situation worse through neglect. Sapphire is a wisdom stone so it will always encourages us to be wise and to rest or seek help as soon as possible.

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Blue Sapphire Mineralogy

Where does Blue Sapphire come from?

Sapphire is mined in Afghanistan,  India, Kenya, Laos, Madagascar, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, United States and Vietnam.

Mining and Treatments

In a few locations, Sapphire may be mined at the primary deposit, tunneling directly into the rock, but it is generally not profitable.  It is often mined at a secondary deposit, located along rivers downstream from where they were formed. Because of its heavy weight, it is easy to separate from river gravels and can be picked out by hand. In many locations production methods are still primitive and done using hand tools such as pans, baskets and shovels.

Lab-created transparent, vivid and eye-clean Sapphire is widely available in the fine gemstone market. A lot of jewelry-quality Sapphire has been treated in some form, most commonly a heat-treatment to enhance the color vividness.  High-quality, untreated Sapphire is more expensive and commands a premium price.  By contrast, opaque Sapphire is reliably natural.

Sapphire Placeholder

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Mineral Family

Sapphire and Ruby are different colors of the mineral Corundum, which is an Oxide mineral. The Oxide family has closely-packed Oxygen atoms with tiny bits of metal or semi-mental atoms occupying the space between. There are two forms of Oxide minerals, “simple Oxides” which only have a single type of metal or semi-metal, and “complex Oxides” which have multiple metals and/or semi-metals. Most Oxide minerals are found in igneous rocks. The most famous Oxide mineral is Corundum, which comes in a rainbow of colors.  When it is red, it is called Ruby.  When it is blue, yellow, pink, or any other color, it is called Sapphire.

Sapphire’s energy works well with its family – other Oxide minerals.  Try it in combination with ChrysoberylHematiteLodestoneMerlinite, and Rutile.  Try it also with other varieties of Corundum like Ruby, Star Sapphire, and Yellow Sapphire

Blue Sapphire Formation and Crystal Associates

Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminum oxide that grows in metamorphic rocks.  Pure Corundum’s hardness is a 9.0 on the Mohs hardness scale, which means its can scratch any mineral besides Diamond and Moissanite. It is naturally colorless and transparent, but usually contains trace minerals which change the transparency level and gives the gem its vibrant colors.

  • Blue and Green Sapphire gets their color from Titanium
  • Ruby and Pink Sapphire gets their color from Chromium
  • Purple Sapphire get its color from Vanadium
  • Yellow Sapphire get its color from Iron or from irradiation
  • Padparadscha Sapphire get its interesting orange-pink-yellow color from Chromium and Iron

Sapphire’s energy works well with its “friends” – crystal associates formed in the same geological environment.  Try it in combination with Dravite Tourmaline

Mineralogy Blue Sapphire
Chemical Formula AlO
Cleavage None
Color Blue
Crystal System Hexagonal-trigonal
Form/Habit Pyramidal, prismatic barrel-shaped
Fracture Small conchoidal, splintery, brittle
Hardness – Mohs Scale 9 (second hardest, after diamond)
Luminescence Red (long and short wave)
Luster Viterous (glassy) to adamantine (brilliant shine)
Mineral Family Oxides
Specific Gravity 3.97-4.05
Streak White
Transparency Transparent to opaque

History of Blue Sapphire

Sapphire has been one of the most highly sought after gemstones throughout history.  It is included in all major lapidaries, texts that describe gemstones and their powers.  The name Sapphire is given to all color varieties of the mineral Corundum, with the exception of blood red stones, which are Rubies.  The word Sapphire comes from the Latin sapphirus, Greek sappheiros and Hebrew sappir, all of which most likely come from the Sanskrit sanipria, meaning “dear to the planet Saturn.”

In the oldest lapidaries, the name Sapphire was used to denote any brilliant blue gemstone. Numerous writings describe Sapphires that were engraved with powerful words. According to one tradition, the Ten Commandments were written on Sapphires. Considering Sapphire’s incredible hardness and the technology of that period, this is very unlikely. A softer blue stone, such as Lapis Lazuli, is far more plausible.  Similarly, Sapphire is listed as the fifth of the twelve stones which decorated the breastplate of the High Priest of ancient Israel. The design for the Breastplate was given by God to Moses, whose brother Aaron was the first to wear it. Each of the gemstones on the Breastplate were inscribed with the symbol for one of the Twelves Tribes of Israel.  This Sapphire was most likely inscribed with the Tribe of Dan.  In later Christian writings, Sapphire was thought to be linked to St. Paul.  Because of these spiritual traditions, the Roman Catholic Church has long favored Blue Sapphires, giving them as ecclesiastical rings to Bishops and other high ranking priests. This practice appears to have started around the same period that priests were forced to remain celibate.  According to medieval lore, Sapphire cools unwise passions and promote a love of Truth and Wisdom above all else.

In European lore, Sapphire is linked to the Greek hero Prometheus, who introduced fire to mankind, against the will of the gods.  For this brave deed he was chained to a mountain and every day an eagle came to eat his liver.  After centuries, Prometheus was finally freed by another hero, Hercules.  As the last of his 12 great labors, Hercules killed the eagle and petition Zeus to pardon Prometheus. The King of the Gods agreed, with one caveat. Prometheus would have to wear a ring forged from the mountain and his chain, a physical reminder of the consequence of ignoring the will of the gods. The chain was used to craft the ring itself, while a gemstone from the mountain was placed on top. This gem was a brilliant blue Sapphire, whose color is like the center of the hottest flames.

In the ancient Vedic texts, revered by followers of the Hindu faith, Blue Sapphires were the eyes of the demon god Vala. According to the story, Vala once took the form of a stone cave where stolen cows were hidden. Indra, the leader of the demigods, split Vala apart, killing him and freeing the cows. Vala’s body was scattered across the earth, and his various body parts were transformed into different gemstones.  Yellow Sapphire is also mentioned in this story, and signifies the skin of Vala.

Prometheus, Blue Sapphire

In Sri Lanka, which boasts some of the most beautiful Sapphires in the world, the gemstones are also similarly linked to eyes. It was said that Sapphires were created whenever beautiful young maidens danced holding flowers in their hands. Their dancing attracted the eyes of the Daitya, a race of giants. Where they gazed, Sapphires would later be found.  Unsurprisingly, Sapphire has long been credited with healing eyes, a trait mentioned in virtually every lapidary.

Sapphires have long been prized possessions among the world’s royalty and nobility.  For many centuries, it was considered one of the ‘Five Cardinal Gemstones’, comparable only with Diamond, Ruby, Emerald and Amethyst.  The oldest European crown still in existence, made for King Recceswinth of the Visigoths (ruled 649-672), is decorated with Sapphires and Pearls.  The oldest stone in the British Crown Jewels is St. Edward’s Sapphire.  According to the official record, it was first worn by King Edward the Confessor (1003-1066) in 1046 in his coronation ring.  Sometime later, the King met a beggar and gave the ring to him out of pity. Years later, the King’s envoys chanced upon an old man in an inn, and he gave them the ring, telling them to return it to the king and to tell him also that they would meet again soon – in the afterlife. Edward died shortly thereafter and was buried with the ring on his finger. A century later, the King’s body was re-interred in the newly built Westminster Abbey. At this point, the Sapphire was removed and given back to the royal family. Today, St. Edward’s Sapphire sits in the center of the cross, at the top of the Imperial State Crown.  It is believed to be of of Sri Lankan origin.

Beautiful Sapphires have been found in numerous locations around the world, and a trained gemologist can often identify their source based on their natural color. Typically speaking, Sri Lankan Sapphires are usually cited as the most consistent source for high-quality gemstones.  Despite having been mined for thousands of years, new Sapphires and other gemstones are constantly being found. The finest Sapphires in the United States come from Montana and have a cornflower blue color.

The most beautiful Sapphires ever found are from Kashmir, and were found during the late 19th century.  These are the Blue Sapphires that set the standard against which all others are measured. The seams ran out after only a decade, but these Sapphire occasionally come back on the market, typically sold in auction. The most expensive Sapphire ever sold, was a loose Kashmir Blue Sapphire.  It sold at Christie’s for over $7 million dollars in 2020.

Crown Of Visgoth, Sapphire

Crown of King Recceswinth

Imperial State Crown, ruby, sapphire

Imperial State Crown of the United Kingdom

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